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Sea ice macrofauna in the Antacrtic and the Arctic
Gulliksen, B., Bjørn; Lønne, O.J. (1991). Sea ice macrofauna in the Antacrtic and the Arctic, in: Nihoul, J.C.J. et al. Ice covered seas and ice edges. Physical, chemical and biological processes and interactions: proceedings of the 22th International Liège Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics. Journal of Marine Systems, 2: pp. 53-61
In: Nihoul, J.C.J.; Djenidi, S. (1991). Ice covered seas and ice edges. Physical, chemical and biological processes and interactions: proceedings of the 22th International Liège Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics. Journal of Marine Systems, 2. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam. 520 pp., more
In: Journal of Marine Systems. Elsevier: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; Amsterdam. ISSN 0924-7963, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Gulliksen, B.
  • Lønne, O.J.

Abstract
    Sea ice faunal assemblages (= sympagic assemblages) with invertebrates and fish are recorded both in the Antarctic and the Arctic. Primary structuring factors of the assemblages are age and drift pattern of the ice, hydrography and water currents in the immediate vicinity of the ice, and distance to the benthic habitat.Animals of both sexes and all developmental stages in the sea ice (= autochthonous sympagic animals) are only recorded from the Arctic. Examples are the amphipods Gammarus wilkitzkii and Apherusa glacialis and the mysid Mysis polaris.Allochthonous sympagic organisms (temporary occupants of the ice) are recorded both in the Antarctic and the Arctic. They may be pelago-sympagic or bentho-sympagic according to their habitat when not living in the ice. Examples of pelago-sympagic organisms from the Antarctic are the krill (Euphausia superba) and the notothenoid fish Pagothenia borchgrevincki; examples from the Arctic are the polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and copepods (Calanus glacialis). Examples of bentho-sympagic organisms are especially amphipods, but also larvae of benthic organisms such as polychaetes, pelecypods, gastropods, tunicates, turbellarians and cirripeds. Nematodes and copepods dominate the meiofaunal assemblages.

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