|Marine birds and ice-influenced environments of polar oceans|
Hunt Jr., G.L. (1991). Marine birds and ice-influenced environments of polar oceans, in: Nihoul, J.C.J. et al. Ice covered seas and ice edges. Physical, chemical and biological processes and interactions: proceedings of the 22th International Liège Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics. Journal of Marine Systems, 2: pp. 233-240
In: Nihoul, J.C.J.; Djenidi, S. (1991). Ice covered seas and ice edges. Physical, chemical and biological processes and interactions: proceedings of the 22th International Liège Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics. Journal of Marine Systems, 2. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam. 520 pp., more
In: Journal of Marine Systems. Elsevier: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; Amsterdam. ISSN 0924-7963, more
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In polar oceans, sea ice both blocks the access of marine birds to aquatic foraging habitats and provides habitats at its margins where some species of birds find enhanced foraging opportunities. Sea ice harbors on its underside a community of organisms dependent on ice algae. In both the Arctic and the Antarctic Oceans, the larger zooplankton and small fishes of the under-ice community are important prey for birds that forage in leads or along the ice edge. Marine birds also forage seaward of the ice edge, where meltwater-induced stability leads to enhanced primary production in spring. Although few data are available on avian use of the open melt-water zone, because of its large area it is likely to be important for total energy flux to marine birds. We may expect considerable variation in avian use of the marginal ice zone. In regions where coupling exists between primary producers, secondary consumers, and higher level predators, marine birds are likely to be abundant. Where coupling is weak, avian use is less likely.