|Satellite remote sensing of the Polar Oceans|
Comiso, J.C. (1991). Satellite remote sensing of the Polar Oceans, in: Nihoul, J.C.J. et al. Ice covered seas and ice edges. Physical, chemical and biological processes and interactions: proceedings of the 22th International Liège Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics. Journal of Marine Systems, 2: pp. 395-434
In: Nihoul, J.C.J.; Djenidi, S. (1991). Ice covered seas and ice edges. Physical, chemical and biological processes and interactions: proceedings of the 22th International Liège Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics. Journal of Marine Systems, 2. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam. 520 pp., more
In: Journal of Marine Systems. Elsevier: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; Amsterdam. ISSN 0924-7963, more
The advent of satellite remote sensing has opened doors for detailed monitoring of the polar regions at a relatively high temporal resolution. Several sensors have been developed over the years, the most noteworthy of which are the visible, the infrared and the microwave systems. The visible and infrared systems are most intelligible to the human eye and provide images that have good spatial resolution. However, because of persistent cloudiness and several months of darkness in the polar regions the most promising sensors appear to be the microwave systems, both passive and active. The passive microwave sensors have been the source of consistently derived ice cover and ice extent data and have provided about fifteen years of global data sets. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), on the other hand, is noted for very high resolution and a wide range of applications including ice dynamics and ice/wave interaction studies. Nevertheless, there are applications which require the use of the visible and infrared channels, such as the mapping of chlorophyll pigment concentrations in the marginal ice zones which require an ocean color scanner. Also, the infrared sensors are most effective for detecting physical temperatures over cloud-free ice and open water surfaces. Furthermore, altimeters could play an important role in mapping ice surface topography and in evaluating ridge and lead statistics. A review of past, present and future satellite systems, methods and techniques of interpretation and potential applications to the study of the polar oceans is presented.