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Physiologische und ökologische Aspekte des Lebens in Ästuarien = Physiological and ecological aspects of life in estuaries
Kinne, O. (1964). Physiologische und ökologische Aspekte des Lebens in Ästuarien = Physiological and ecological aspects of life in estuaries. Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunters. 11(3-4): 131-156
In: Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen. Biologische Anstalt Helgoland: Hamburg. ISSN 0017-9957, more
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    In spite of their structural diversity, estuarine organisms exhibit close functional similarities, particularly with respect to the compensatory measures employed to counteract the ill effects of their rough osmotic and thermal environment. Four groups of such compensatory possibilities are distinguished: escape, reduction of contact, regulation and adaptation. It should be emphasized that these compensation types may occur simultaneously in one and the same individual and that they may not always be distinguishable to the last detail. Nevertheless, such a subdivision makes it possible to present the multiplicity of physiological and ecological responses in some order and may prove a useful tool for further analyses. With respect to compensations for the potential ill effects of salinity, escape, reduction of contact and regulation (ion-, volume- and osmoregulation) appear to be most important. In regard to extreme temperature conditions, escape and adaptation represent the primary means for compensation. The information on hand indicates that compensations for adverse salinities are more immediately available and better developed than those for adverse temperatures. Unsuitable temperature conditions are tolerated rather than compensated for and thus may greatly affect metabolic rate, activity, reproduction and other functions as well as structural aspects. The most important characteristic of estuarine organisms — their euryplasticity — seems to be a rather rare asset both in the plant and animal kingdom and phylogenetically quite conservative.

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