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Bioenergetics and survival of the marine snail Thais lima during long-term oil exposure
Stickle, W.B.; Rice, S.D.; Moles, A. (1984). Bioenergetics and survival of the marine snail Thais lima during long-term oil exposure. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 80: 281-289
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Energy metabolism; Marine environment; Stress; Survival; Toxicity; Gastropoda [WoRMS]; Invertebrata; Mollusca [WoRMS]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Stickle, W.B.
  • Rice, S.D.
  • Moles, A.

Abstract
    The carnivorous snail Thais lima was fed Mytilus edulis during a 28-d exposure to the water soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil. The LC-50 of T. lima declined from >3000 ppb aromatic hydrocarbons on Day 7 to 818±118 ppb on Day 28. The LC-50 of M. edulis declined from >3 000 ppb aromatic hydrocarbons on Day 7 to 1 686±42 ppb on Day 28. Predation rate declined linearly with increasing aromatic hydrocarbon concentration up to 302 ppb; little predation occurred at 538 ppb and none at 1 160 or 1 761 ppb. Snail absorption efficiency averaged 93.5% and did not vary as a function of WSF dose. Total energy expenditure (R+U) increased at 44 ppb aromatics and declined at lethal WSF exposures. At sublethal WSF exposures, percentages of total energy expenditure were: respiration (87%), ammonia excretion (9%) and primary amine loss (4%). These percentages did not vary as a function of WSF dose or time. Oxygen:nitrogen ratios were not affected by WSF concentration or time and indicated that T. lima derived most of its energy from protein catabolism. The uptake of aromatic hydrocarbons into the soft tissues of snails and mussels was directly related to the WSF concentration. Naphthalenes accounted for 67 to 78% of the aromatic hydrocarbons in T. lima and 56 to 71% in M. edulis. The scope for growth was negative above 150 ppb WSF aromatic hydrocarbons and above 1 204 ppb soft-body aromatic hydrocarbons. These snails were physiologically stressed at an aromatic hydrocarbon concentration which was 19% of the 28-d WSF LC-50 (818±118 ppb) and/or 48% of the 28-d LC-50 of soft tissue aromatics (2 502 ppb).

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