|Energetic costs of raising Pygoscelid penguin chicks|
Culik, B. (1994). Energetic costs of raising Pygoscelid penguin chicks. Polar Biol. 14(3): 205-210
In: Polar Biology. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg. ISSN 0722-4060, more
Animal metabolism; Avian physiology; Bioenergetics; Body size; Food consumption; Juveniles; Marine birds; Pygoscelis adeliae (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841) [WoRMS]; Pygoscelis antarcticus (Forster, 1781) [WoRMS]; Pygoscelis papua (Forster, 1781) [WoRMS]; PSW, Antarctica [Marine Regions]; Marine
Energy requirements of resting Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), Gentoo (P. papua) and Chinstrap (P. antarctica) penguin chicks were determined with respect to body mass via respirometry in Antarctica. Resting metabolic rates of all Pygoscelid penguin chicks were similar (ANOVA p=0.91) and best described by E=0.0096 M0.98 (n=24, r2=0.97), where E is power (W) and M is mass (g). Using the results obtained here and data published in the literature, I determined a) the amount of food needed from hatching to fledging as 29.8, 31.7 and 56.4 kg per chick for Adélie, Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins, respectively and b) the average amount of food left daily to the parent after feeding the brood throughout the breeding period. Parents keep only a minimum of food for themselves just prior to the time when chicks begin forming crèches. Thereafter, nest relief intervals are increased, and the amount of food parents can keep for themselves rises. The results of both models are discussed with respect to available data on Pygoscelid penguin food requirements.