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Planktonic spermatophores found in a culture device wit spionid polychaetes
Greve, W. (1974). Planktonic spermatophores found in a culture device wit spionid polychaetes. Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunters. 26: 370-374
In: Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen. Biologische Anstalt Helgoland: Hamburg. ISSN 0017-9957, more
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    1. During culture experiments with marine invertebrates pelagic spermatophores were detected which looked like transparent toy baloons of 1.6 mm diameter. They were extremely fragile, which may account for the lack of previous reports.2. The spermatophores never appeared singly. 10 of them were seen emerging from the sand at a place where the spionid Spio filicornis was living.3. The shape and size of the spermatozoa conform to those of related spionids, which have spezialized organs assumed to be capable of producing pelagic spermatophores; while mating experiments were not conclusive, evidence suggests that the spermatophores were indeed the product of Spio filicornis.4. Therefore it is expected that at least this spionid polychaete uses the indirect transfer of spermatophores in order to assure the fertilization of its eggs. The only group of marine organisms from which a similar behaviour is known are members of Halacarida.

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