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The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990
Jaccarini, V.; Martens, E.E. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Reprinted from Hydrobiologia, vol. 247. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht. ISBN 0-7923-2049-2. 266 pp.
Part of: Dumont, H.J. (Ed.) Developments in Hydrobiology. Kluwer Academic/Springer: Den Haag. ISSN 0167-8418, more

Available in Authors 
Document type: Conference

Keywords
Author keywords
    interlinkage, seagrass ecosystem, mangrove ecosystem, coral ecosystem

Authors  Top 
  • Jaccarini, V., editor
  • Martens, E.E., editor, more

Content
  • Semesi, K. (1992). Developing management plans for the mangrove forest reserves of mainland Tanzania, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 1-10, more
  • Azariah, J.; Azariah, H.; Gunasekaran, S.; Selvam, V. (1992). Structure and species distribution in Coringa mangrove forest, Godavari Delta, Andhra Pradesh, India, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 11-16, more
  • Amarasinghe, M.D.; Balasubramaniam, S. (1992). Structural properties of two types of mangrove stands on the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 17-27, more
  • Gang, P.O.; Agatsiva, J.L. (1992). The current status of mangroves along the Kenyan coast: a case study of Mida creek mangroves based on remote sensing, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 29-36, more
  • Amarasinghe, M.D.; Balasubramaniam, S. (1992). Net primary productivity of two mangrove forest stands on the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 37-47, more
  • Hatton, J.C.; Couto, A.L. (1992). The effect of coastline changes on mangrove community structure, Portuguese Island, Mozambique, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 49-57, more
  • Coppejans, E.; Beeckman, H.; De Wit, M. (1992). The seagrass and associated macroalgal vegetation of Gazi Bay (Kenya), in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 59-75, more
  • Kannan, L.; Vasantha, K. (1992). Microphytoplankton of the Pitchavaram mangals, southeast coast of India: species composition and population density, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 77-86, more
  • Ellison, A.M.; Farnsworth, E.J. (1992). The ecology of Belizean mangrove-root fouling communities: patterns of epibiont distribution and abundance, and effects on root growth, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 87-98, more
  • Vanhove, S.; Vincx, M.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Gijselinck, W.; Schram, D. (1992). The meiobenthos of five mangrove vegetation types in Gazi Bay, Kenya, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 99-108, more
  • Tack, J.F.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Polk, F. (1992). Ecomorphology of Crassostrea cucullata (Born, 1778) (Ostreidae) in a mangrove creek (Gazi, Kenya), in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 109-117, more
  • Osore, M. (1992). A note on the zooplankton distribution and diversity in a tropical mangrove creek system, Gazi, Kenya, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 119-120, more
  • Done, T.J. (1992). Phase shifts in coral reef communities and their ecological significance, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 121-132, more
  • Woodley, J.D. (1992). The incidence of hurricanes on the north coast of Jamaica since 1870: are the reef descriptions atypical?, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 133-138, more
  • van der Velde, G.; Gorissen, M.W.; den Hartog, C.; van 't Hoff, T.; Meijer, G.J. (1992). Importance of the Lac-lagoon (Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles) for a selected number of reef fish species, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 139-140, more
  • Wolanski, E. (1992). Hydrodynamics of mangrove swamps and their coastal waters, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 141-161, more
  • Uncles, R.J.; Gong, W.-K.; Ong, J.-E. (1992). Intratidal fluctuations in stratification within a mangrove estuary, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 163-171, more
  • Francis, J. (1992). Physical processes in the Rufiji delta and their possible implications on the mangrove ecosystem, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 173-179, more
  • Selvam, V.; Azariah, J.; Azariah, H. (1992). Diurnal variation in physical-chemical properties and primary production in the interconnected marine, mangrove and freshwater biotopes of Kakinada coast, Andhra Pradesh, India, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 181-186, more
  • Mohanraju, R.; Natarajan, R. (1992). Methanogenic bacteria in mangrove sediments, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 187-193, more
  • Sasekumar, A.; Chong, V.C.; Leh, M.U.; D'Cruz, R. (1992). Mangroves as a habitat for fish and prawns, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 195-207, more
  • Rasowo, J. (1992). Mariculture development in Kenya: alternatives to siting ponds in the mangrove ecosystem, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 209-214, more
  • Ntiba, M.J.; Jaccarini, V. (1992). The effect of oocytic atresia on fecundity estimates of the rabbit fish Siganus sutor (Pisces: Siganidae) of Kenyan marine inshore waters, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 215-222, more
  • Trono, G.C.; Lluisma, A.O. (1992). Differences in biomass production and carrageenan yields among four strains of farmed carragheenophytes in Northern Bohol, Philippines, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 223-227, more
  • Ngoile, M.A.K.; Shunula, J.P. (1992). Status and exploitation of the mangrove and associated fishery resources in Zanzibar, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 229-234, more
  • Bacon, P.R.; Alleng, G.P. (1992). The management of insular caribbean mangroves in relation to site location and community type, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 235-241, more
  • Van Speybroeck, D. (1992). Regeneration strategy of mangroves along the Kenya coast: a first approach, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 243-251, more
  • Azariah, J.; Selvam, V.; Gunasekaran, S. (1992). Impact of past management practices on the present status of the Muthupet mangrove ecosystem, in: Jaccarini, V. et al. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Developments in Hydrobiology, 80: pp. 253-259, more

Abstract
    The international symposium on The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems, Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September, 1990, was organized by the Department of Zoology, University of Nairobi, in collaboration with the Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, and the Regional Dispatch Centre of the Regional Cooperation in Scientific Information Exchange in the West Indian Ocean, Mombasa, Kenya. It was officially opened by Professor F. N. Onyango, Principal, College of Biological and Physical Sciences, University of Nairobi. The closing address was given by Professor M. Hyder, retired Principal and Professor of Zoology, CBPS, University of Nairobi. Scientific investigations of the mangrove and coral reef ecosystems in Kenya have been going on at least since the early 70’s and have been gathering momentum with the involvement of the University of Nairobi, KMFRI, and British, Belgian, Dutch and Italian universities and scientific institutions. So the time was ripe to take stock of the situation and to try to bring together workers in the same field from as many tropical regions as possible. A cursory glance at the list of participants is sufficient proof of the widespread interest in the theme of the symposium. Contributions came from all the main tropical marine areas of the globe, representing twenty-three countries, in West and Eastern Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Central and South America, and Australia. The thirty papers published in this volume were selected from seventy presented at the symposium. It is recognized that the mangroves have intimate and complex linkages with other coastal systems, notably seagrass beds and coral reefs. So, starting from the mangrove forest and its users at the interface between the terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments, the papers presented proceed to the fully submerged seagrasses and further out to the corals. The nature of the coupling between the different systems was touched on at the symposium, but stands out as a serious gap in our knowledge. Next, chemical and physical processes which constitute the mechanisms of linkage received attention. Human uses and abuses of the ecosystems formed the last major topic of the symposium. Workshop discussions were held during the symposium in preparation for the adoption in plenary session of two declarations: A Statement of Priorities for Scientific Research and A Declaration on Management Strategies. The following priorities for basic research were agreed : the interlinkages between the mangrove, coral reef and seagrass ecosystems; the need for more information on nearshore hydrological processes operating at the small and meso-scale and elaboration of predictive models ; more work on nutrient cycling and energy flow including soil processes; biological processes and use of bio-indicators. Priorities were also set for applied research. This, it was agreed, should be directed towards management of the forest or aquatic product on a sustainable basis, taking into account the integrated nature of the ecosystems. Emphasis should be placed on minimizing perturbations to the systems and the maintenance of ecological integrity. Broad areas needing investigation were identified: methods for efficient and ecologically sound land use in the watershed adjacent to the mangal, seagrass beds and coral reefs; effect of management of the mangroves on off-shore fisheries; impact of industralization on the mangal and related ecosystems; effect of domestic and industrial effluents and management of their impact; comparative studies on destructive and non-destructive aquacultural techniques with a view to minimizing negative effects; the effect of human activities on physical, chemical and biological soil processes; research on management practices appropriate to different mangrove forest types and promotion of a biotechnological aproach in mangrove silviculture; socio-economic studies of human coastal settlements; natural products of the mangals; the impact of global climate change; and active rehabilitation of seagrass beds and coral reefs. The Declaration on Management Strategies was positive, concluding that much can be done to stop the degradation of damaged mangals, seagrass beds and coral reefs and to rehabilitate them, but that new techniques must be worked out to allow use on a sustainable basis for long term economic return and for the wellbeing of coastal human settlements and a healthy environment. To achieve the above goals the Symposium recommended the following strategies. The establishment of National Coastal Management Plans including the following components : survey of both natural and human resources and their present uses ; identification of the problems affecting coastal ecosystems; adjustment of legal frameworks with regard to the uses of these ecosystems and enforcement of existing management regulations; provision of technical assistance and training for the introduction of economically and ecologically viable activities in these ecosystems ; rehabilitation of damaged areas ; creation of natural reserves both for tourism and for the recuperation of natural plant and animal populations; education and creation of public awareness on the value and problems of these ecosystems. In formulating and implementing each national Plan all concerned parties should be involved, i.e., the inhabitants and the outside users of these ecosystems, the policy makers, the scientists and technical experts, and also the national and international funding agencies. Use should be made of existing institutions and networks. The scientists gathered in the symposium urged the establishment or strengthening of regional and international associations of scientists to provide the scientific basis to national and regional management plans.

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