|Survival and quality of halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) in intensive farming: possible impact of the intestinal bacterial community|
|Bjornsdottir, R.; Johannsdottir, J.; Coe, J.; Smaradottir, H.; Agustsson, T.; Sigurgisladottir, S.; Gudmundsdottir, B.K. (2009). Survival and quality of halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) in intensive farming: possible impact of the intestinal bacterial community. Aquaculture 286(1-2): 53-63. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.09.003|
|In: Aquaculture. Elsevier: Amsterdam. ISSN 0044-8486, more|
Bacteria; Community composition; Developmental stages; Digestive system; Flatfish fisheries; Intensive culture; Larvae; Quality; Species diversity; Survival; Aeromonas [WoRMS]; Artemia Leach, 1819 [WoRMS]; Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus, 1758) [WoRMS]; Vibrio O.F.Müller, 1773 [WoRMS]; Marine
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The high mortality commonly observed during the early life stages of intensively reared halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L) is believed to be caused by e.g. opportunistic bacteria. However, the impact of particular bacterial species is poorly defined and still remains disputable. The study describes the bacterial diversity in the gastrointestinal tract of halibut larvae in a large number of incubators at a commercial production site. The overall success of larvae was found to be highly variable and analysis of the gut microbiota revealed high variation of the cultivable part as well as the bacterial community of surface sterilised larvae analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplified 16s rDNA products. Analysis of the bacterial community of unfed yolk sac larvae revealed higher diversity than previously reported, with Marinomonas, Marinobacter, Aeromonas and Shewanella dominating the community structure. There are indications that Marinomonas is found only in the overall most successful first feeding larvae of the period where the Vibrio group dominated the bacterial community together with Shewanella. Vibrio wodanis was identified as a part of the bacterial community of feeding larvae that yielded the poorest overall success of the period. α-Proteobacteria, not previously reported in halibut, were also found as a part of the bacterial community of first feeding larvae. The diverse bacterial community was only partly reflected in the cultivable part which, however, may reflect the dominating bacterial groups of the highly heterogeneous bacterial community of larvae in the production system as a whole. The bacterial community of the Artemia was found to be highly variable in different samples collected through the period. Only a small part of the different groups observed in the bacterial community of surface sterilised larvae was reflected in the cultivable part which was dominated by highly variable groups in different samples of Artemia. Also, the numbers of cultivable bacteria were found to positively correlate with jaw deformation of unfed yolk sac larvae as well as incomplete metamorphosis of feeding larvae.