|Atmospheric deposition of acid, heavy metals, dissolved organic carbon and nutrients in the Dutch Delta Area in 1980-1986|
Nguyen, V.D.; Merks, A.G.A.; Valenta, P. (1990). Atmospheric deposition of acid, heavy metals, dissolved organic carbon and nutrients in the Dutch Delta Area in 1980-1986. Sci. Total Environ. 99: 77-91
In: Science of the Total Environment. Elsevier: Amsterdam. ISSN 0048-9697, more
|Authors|| || Top |
- Nguyen, V.D.
- Merks, A.G.A.
- Valenta, P.
In a 7-year program established to investigate the deposition of pollutants from the atmosphere, wet precipitation samples were collected in specially designed samplers at two sampling locations in the Delta area of The Netherlands. Average monthly and yearly concentrations and depositions of acid, (H3O+), heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Co), nutrients (NH4+, NO3- , and SO42-), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the rainwater and snow samples were calculated by taking cumulative samples on a weekly basis. The data for the annual mean concentrations showed no significant temporal trend for ammonium and nitrate. However, a slight decrease in H3O+ and DOC was observed. The decrease in H3O+ was believed to be the result of the lower concentration of H3O+ and the lower amount of precipitation. The wet deposition of sulfate showed a slightly decreasing trend over the seven year sampling program with 90% of the SO2 emission originating from fossil-fuel-burning power plants and heavy industry. Levels of nitrate in wet precipitation were below detection limits. Statistical evaluation of the concentrations of the ecotoxic heavy metals in wet precipitation revealed the sequence of average concentrations to be as follows: Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Co. There were no statistically significantly temporal trends for Cd and Zn while a slight decrease for Pb and Cu deposition was observed in 1986. The ecotoxic heavy metals were believed to be emitted into the atmosphere from various industrial sources and from large, diffuse sources such as road traffic and coal burning by households and small industries.