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Symbiosis in the larger foraminiferan Sorites marginalis (with notes on Archaias spp.)
Müller-Merz, E.; Lee, J.J. (1976). Symbiosis in the larger foraminiferan Sorites marginalis (with notes on Archaias spp.). J. Protoz. 23(3): 390-396.
In: The Journal of Protozoology. Society of Protozoologists: Lawrence. ISSN 0022-3921, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    Sorites marginalis;heterokaryotic foraminiferan;symbiotic zooxanthellae;light microscopy;electron microscopy

Authors  Top 
  • Müller-Merz, E.
  • Lee, J.J.

    It was demonstrated with the aid of light and electron microscope studies that Sorites marginalis (Lamarck) harbors zooxanthellae. The hosts were scraped from Thalassia testudinum Konig growing in Key Largo Sound (Florida, U.S.A.) and immediately preserved in appropriate fixatives. Zooxanthellae were distributed unevenly throughout all the chamberlets; only a few symbiotes were found in the embryonic chambers and the inner or outer chambers, but the intermediate chambers were packed with symbiotes. The outer chambers contained many food vacuoles in addition to symbiotes. Some zooxanthellae might have been in the process of degeneration or digestion. The symbiotes were found to have a typical dinoflagellate nucleus, a single large lobate cortical chloroplast with one stalked pyrenoid, an accumulation body, and many starch granules. The nonmotile stage of the zooxanthella was similar, but perhaps not identical, to Symbiodinium microadriaticum Freudenthal from various hosts.The foraminiferan host is heterokaryotic with hundreds of generative (small) nuclei and scores of vegetative (large) nuclei. Most of the generative nuclei were found in the embryonic apparatus and the inner chambers. Most of the vegetative nuclei were found in the inner and outer chambers.

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