|The effects of oil on seabirds|
|Croxall, J.P. (1977). The effects of oil on seabirds. Rapp. P.v. Réun. Cons. int. Explor. Mer. 171: 191-195|
|In: Rapport et Procès-verbaux des Réunions, Conseil international pour L'Exploration de la Mer. ICES, more|
|Also published as |
- Croxall, J.P. (1977). The effects of oil on seabirds, in: McIntyre, A.D. et al. (Ed.) (1977). Petroleum hydrocarbons in the marine environment: Proceedings from ICES Workshop held in Aberdeen 9-12 September 1975. Rapp. P.-v. Réun. Cons. int. Explor. Mer, 171: pp. 191-195, more
Oil pollution; Pollution effects; Aves [WoRMS]; Marine
Seabirds are not only the most obvious victims of oil pollution but perhaps the only group where oil pollution may pose a survival threat. The external effect of oil in destroying plumage waterproofing is detailed and the state of knowledge of the direct and indirect internal effects of crude and fuel oils reviewed, inevitably in rather general terms. The need for more precise information on the behaviour of oil slicks and oil/dispersant mixtures and films at sea is emphasised in relation to potential techniques and strategies for minimising the high risk to seabirds (whether at breeding colonies or on wintering grounds) from oil slicks.