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Developmental osteology of the lined sole, Achirus lineatus (Pisces: Soleidae)
Futch, C.R.; Topp, R.W.; Houde, E.D. (1972). Developmental osteology of the lined sole, Achirus lineatus (Pisces: Soleidae). Contrib. mar. sci. 16: 33-58
In: Contributions in Marine Science. The University of Texas. Marine Science Institute: Port Aransas. ISSN 0082-3449, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Futch, C.R.
  • Topp, R.W.
  • Houde, E.D.

    Developmental osteology of the lined sole, A. lineatus, based on a study of 17 specimens is described and figured. Chronology of osteological development is documented. Study material, ranging from 2.14 to 93.0 mm SL, included cleared and stained specimens, and disarticulated skeletons. The adult skull is markedly asymmetrical in the olfactory, orbital, and oromandibular regions, with fusion of ethmoid, lateral ethmoid, and prefrontal components. Although mandibular dentition is restricted to left maxillary and dentary, adult asymmetry is less pronounced in the branchiocranium, as well as the posterior elements of the neurocranium. Branchial arches are typically periform in composition and arrangement. Otoloths are unsculptured, with no annuli apparent. Paired neural elements of the atlas are autogenous and do not meet dorsomesially. The 2nd neural spine joins the supraoccipital. Parapophyses first join ventromesially on the 5th trunk vertebra. The 3 posterior vertebrae are involved in caudal fin support. The hemal speciesine of the penultimate vertebra is autogenous. The 2 anterior most dorsal fin rays are supported by a single pterygiophore. The first 5 pterygiophores are accommodated by notches in the supraoccipital crest. A right pectoral fin is present having 4 to 6 small rays without bony connection to the cleithourum. A single 5-rayed pelvic fin is supported by aired basipterygia. A. lineatus closely resembles the eastern Atlantic genus Solea in most details of its neurocranium, trunk vertebrae and caudal skeleton. Achirus differs by absence of a lacrymal, greater symmetry of jaw elements, smaller number of caudal vertebrae, and lack of strong lateral apophyses. In a series of alizarin-stained larval stages, a cumulative sequence of osteological events is documented: 2.14 mm SL syncranial elements, neural species, and cleithoural elements present, including large postcleithourum; 2.52 mm SL- appearance of autosphenotic, full branchiostegal complement, distinct arcualia, parapophyses, hemal spines, primordial caudal skeleton, and anterior dorsal lepidotrichs; 3/20 mm SL-proliberation of vertical fin rays; 3.57 mm SL- appearance of bones of olfactory region, full vertebral complement, remaining caudal elements, pelvic girdle and fin, and disappearance of postchleithoura; 12 to 14 mm SL-all bony elements present, and in approximate adult configuration.

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