|Spawning, larval settlement, growth, biomass, and distribution of Ciona intestinalis L. (Tunicata) in Borgenfjorden, North-Tröndelag, Norway|
Gulliksen, B. (1972). Spawning, larval settlement, growth, biomass, and distribution of Ciona intestinalis L. (Tunicata) in Borgenfjorden, North-Tröndelag, Norway. Sarsia 51: 83-96
In: Sarsia. University of Bergen. Universitetsforlaget: Bergen. ISSN 0036-4827, more
Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) [WoRMS]; Tunicata [WoRMS]; Marine
Spawning, larval settlement, growth, variation of biomass, and distribution of C. intestinalis in Borigenfjorden were investigated using submerged slabs of eternite and line transects. In 1970, the spawning started at a temp between 8° C-12° C in May-June and continued to August-October with settlement on the bottom in June. Settling was also observed during the winter, but these larvae were probably recruited from populations outside Borgenfjorden. The highest values of biomass on the line transects were observed from August to November on hard-bottom localities in outer Borgenfjorden. The biomass per m2 was larger on the eternite slabs than in the line transects, mainly due to heavy predation both on larvae and adult C. intestinalis on the line transects.