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Recent developments in the analysis and environmental chemistry of toxaphene with emphasis on the marine environment
Muir, D.C.G.; de Boer, J. (1995). Recent developments in the analysis and environmental chemistry of toxaphene with emphasis on the marine environment. Trends Anal. Chem. 14(2): 56-66
In: Trends in Analytical Chemistry. Elsevier: Amsterdam. ISSN 0165-9936, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Muir, D.C.G.
  • de Boer, J., more

Abstract
    Toxaphene (camphechlor) is a pesticide consisting primarily of chlorinated bornanes (CHBs) which was widely used until the mid 1980s. Toxaphene continues to be a major contaminant in marine and freshwater biota, with levels in marine fish exceeding some regulatory guideline limits. Methods of analysis for CHBs include gas chromatography with detection by electron-capture negative ion and electron ionization mass spectrometry, as well as electron-capture detection. Until recently quantification of toxaphene was limited by lack of suitable analytical standards and by limited information on the structural identity of CHB residues in environmental samples. This article reviews recent developments, such as the identification and synthesis of CHB congeners, and new information on spatial and temporal trends.

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