|The Osmotic and Ionic Regulation of Artemia Salina (L.)|
Croghan, P.C. (1958). The Osmotic and Ionic Regulation of Artemia Salina (L.). J. Exp. Biol. 35: 219-233
In: Journal of Experimental Biology. Cambridge University Press: London. ISSN 0022-0949, more
1. It has been possible to adapt Artemia to sea-water media varying from 0.26% NaCl to crystallizing brine. In fresh water or distilled water survival is relatively short.2. The osmotic pressure of the haemolymph is relatively independent of the medium and increases only slightly as the medium is made more concentrated. In the more concentrated media the haemolymph is very markedly hypotonic. In media more dilute than 25% sea water the haemolymph is hypertonic. In distilled water there is a rapid fall of haemolymph concentration. The haemolymph of nauplii from sea water is hypotonic.3. The sodium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride concentrations of the haemolymph have been determined. The bulk of the haemolymph osmotic pressure is accounted for by sodium and chloride ions. The ionic ratios of the haemolymph are relatively constant, and very different from those of the medium.4. The concentrations of ions in the whole animal have been studied. The chloride space is extremely high. Such changes in haemolymph osmotic pressure that do occur as the medium concentration is varied are due more to net movements of NaCl into or out of the body than to water movements.5. Evidence is collected to show that an appreciable degree of permeability exists. Most of this permeability is localized to the gut epithelium, the external surface being much less permeable.6. It is clear that Artemia must possess mechanisms that can actively excrete NaCl and take up water in hypertonic media. It has been demonstrated that Artemia can lower the haemolymph osmotic pressure by excreting NaCl from the haemolymph against the concentration gradient.