|Mapping total suspended matter from geostationary satellites: a feasibility study with SEVIRI in the Southern North Sea|
|Neukermans, G.; Ruddick, K.; Bernard, E.; Ramon, D.; Nechad, B.; Deschamps, P.-Y. (2009). Mapping total suspended matter from geostationary satellites: a feasibility study with SEVIRI in the Southern North Sea. Optics Express: the international electronic journal of optics 17(16): 14029-14052|
|In: Optics Express: the international electronic journal of optics, more|
Atmospheric correction; Atmospheric optics; Remote sensing; Remote sensing equipment; Remote sensors; ANE, North Sea [gazetteer]; Marine
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- BELCOLOUR-2 : Optical remote sensing of marine, coastal and inland waters, more
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Geostationary ocean colour sensors have not yet been launched into space, but are under consideration by a number of space agencies. This study provides a proof of concept for mapping of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) in turbid coastal waters from geostationary platforms with the existing SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) meteorological sensor on the METEOSAT Second Generation platform. Data are available in near real time every 15 minutes. SEVIRI lacks sufficient bands for chlorophyll remote sensing but its spectral resolution is sufficient for quantification of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) in turbid waters, using a single broad red band, combined with a suitable near infrared band. A test data set for mapping of TSM in the Southern North Sea was obtained covering 35 consecutive days from June 28 until July 31 2006. Atmospheric correction of SEVIRI images includes corrections for Rayleigh and aerosol scattering, absorption by atmospheric gases and atmospheric transmittances. The aerosol correction uses assumptions on the ratio of marine reflectances and aerosol reflectances in the red and near-infrared bands. A single band TSM retrieval algorithm, calibrated by non-linear regression of seaborne measurements of TSM and marine reflectance was applied. The effect of the above assumptions on the uncertainty of the marine reflectance and TSM products was analysed. Results show that (1) mapping of TSM in the Southern North Sea is feasible with SEVIRI for turbid waters, though with considerable uncertainties in clearer waters, (2) TSM maps are well correlated with TSM maps obtained from MODIS AQUA and (3) during cloud-free days, high frequency dynamics of TSM are detected.