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Hull fouling is a risk factor for intercontinental species exchange in aquatic ecosystems
Drake, J.M.; Lodge, D.M. (2007). Hull fouling is a risk factor for intercontinental species exchange in aquatic ecosystems. Aquat. Invasions 2(2): 121-131
In: Aquatic Invasions. Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre (REABIC): Helsinki. ISSN 1798-6540, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

    Biofouling; Bioinvasion; Environmental policy; Invasive species; Risk analysis; Marine; Brackish water; Fresh water

Authors  Top 
  • Drake, J.M.
  • Lodge, D.M.

    Anthropogenic biological invasions are a leading threat to aquatic biodiversity in marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Ballast water discharged from transoceanic ships is commonly believed to be the dominant pathway for species introduction and is therefore increasingly subject to domestic and international regulation. However, compared to species introductions from ballast, trans-location by biofouling of ships’ exposed surfaces has been poorly quantified. We report translocation of species by a transoceanic bulk carrier intercepted in the North American Great Lakes in fall 2001. We collected 944 individuals of at least 74 distinct freshwater and marine taxa. Eight of 29 taxa identified to species have never been observed in the Great Lakes. Employing five different statistical techniques, we estimated that the biofouling community of this ship comprised from 100 to 200 species. These findings adjust upward by an order of magnitude the number of species collected from a single ship. Thus, overall invasion risk from biofouling may be comparable or exceed that of ballast water discharge.

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