|Risk formulation for the sonic effects of offshore wind farms on fish in the EU region|In: Marine Pollution Bulletin. Macmillan: London. ISSN 0025-326X, more
Fish; Migratory species; Noise pollution; Renewable energy; Risk assessment; Marine
In 2007, European leaders agreed to source 20% of their energy needs from renewable energy; since thattime, offshore wind farms have been receiving attention in the European Union (EU). In 2008, the EuropeanCommunity submitted a proposal to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in order tocombat marine noise pollution. In consideration of these facts, the present paper aims to deduce a preliminaryhypothesis and its formulation for the effect of offshore wind farm noise on fish. The followinggeneral picture is drawn: the short-term potential impact during pre-construction; the short-term intensiveimpact during construction; and the physiological and/or masking effects that may occur over a longperiod while the wind farm is in operation. The EU’s proposal to UNEP includes noise databases that listthe origins of man-made sounds; it is advisable that offshore wind farms should be listed in the noisedatabases in order to promote rational environment management.