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Risk formulation for the sonic effects of offshore wind farms on fish in the EU region
Kikuchi, R. (2010). Risk formulation for the sonic effects of offshore wind farms on fish in the EU region. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 60(2): 172-177.
In: Marine Pollution Bulletin. Macmillan: London. ISSN 0025-326X, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Author 

    Fish; Migratory species; Noise pollution; Renewable energy; Risk assessment; Marine
Author keywords
    Biological risk assessment; Convention on Migratory Species; Fish; Noisepollution; Renewable Energy Roadmap

Author  Top 
  • Kikuchi, R.

    In 2007, European leaders agreed to source 20% of their energy needs from renewable energy; since thattime, offshore wind farms have been receiving attention in the European Union (EU). In 2008, the EuropeanCommunity submitted a proposal to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in order tocombat marine noise pollution. In consideration of these facts, the present paper aims to deduce a preliminaryhypothesis and its formulation for the effect of offshore wind farm noise on fish. The followinggeneral picture is drawn: the short-term potential impact during pre-construction; the short-term intensiveimpact during construction; and the physiological and/or masking effects that may occur over a longperiod while the wind farm is in operation. The EU’s proposal to UNEP includes noise databases that listthe origins of man-made sounds; it is advisable that offshore wind farms should be listed in the noisedatabases in order to promote rational environment management.

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