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Risk formulation for the sonic effects of offshore wind farms on fish in the EU region
Kikuchi, R. (2010). Risk formulation for the sonic effects of offshore wind farms on fish in the EU region. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 60(2): 172-177. hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.09.023
In: Marine Pollution Bulletin. Macmillan: Oxford. ISSN 0025-326X, more
Peer reviewed article

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Keywords
    Fish; Migratory species; Noise pollution; Renewable energy; Risk assessment; Marine

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  • Kikuchi, R.

Abstract
    In 2007, European leaders agreed to source 20% of their energy needs from renewable energy; since that
    time, offshore wind farms have been receiving attention in the European Union (EU). In 2008, the European
    Community submitted a proposal to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in order to
    combat marine noise pollution. In consideration of these facts, the present paper aims to deduce a preliminary
    hypothesis and its formulation for the effect of offshore wind farm noise on fish. The following
    general picture is drawn: the short-term potential impact during pre-construction; the short-term intensive
    impact during construction; and the physiological and/or masking effects that may occur over a long
    period while the wind farm is in operation. The EU’s proposal to UNEP includes noise databases that list
    the origins of man-made sounds; it is advisable that offshore wind farms should be listed in the noise
    databases in order to promote rational environment management.

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