|Methodologies for estimating shipping emissions in the Netherlands. A documentation of currently used emission factors and data on related activity|
Denier van der Gon, H.; Hulskotte, J. (2010). Methodologies for estimating shipping emissions in the Netherlands. A documentation of currently used emission factors and data on related activity. Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency: [s.l.]. 56 pp.
Part of: BOP Report. Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau: Bilthoven. ISSN 1875-2322, more
|Authors|| || Top |
- Denier van der Gon, H.
- Hulskotte, J.
Shipping is an important source of PM. Total emissions of sea shipping in and around Europe are estimated at ~300 kton annually. The Netherlands is a coastal country with major ports like Rotterdam and Amsterdam. Hence the share of shipping on Dutch territory in total Dutch emissions is significant especially for SO2, NOx and PM10. For 2008 shipping contributed 53%, 31% en 19% to total Dutch SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions, respectively. The majority of this emission (> 80%) occurs on the Dutch part of the Continental shelf (NCP), CBS (2009). Proper estimation and allocation of shipping emissions is crucial for understanding the impact of shipping on air quality and health in harbour cities and coastal regions. This report summarizes the emission factors and methodologies to estimate emissions from inland shipping and sea shipping by the Dutch Pollutant Release & Transfer Register (PRTR). Inland shipping is split in national and international inland shipping. Emissions from seagoing ships are split in emissions from seagoing ships on the Dutch continental shelf, seagoing ships, manoeuvring in and towards Dutch harbours and emissions from seagoing ships at berth. The core of the present report is a clear and concise documentation of the Dutch emission estimation methodology based on available (Dutch) reports and protocols developed since 2000. These methodologies rely heavily on the work done in the frame work of the project Emission registration and Monitoring Shipping (EMS) executed in 2000-2003. EMS was initiated by DG Goederenvervoer (Directorate-General freight transport1) of the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management .It is important to stress that the objective of the current report is not to report shipping emissions. These can be obtained through the Dutch national statistics as a product of the Pollutant Release & Transfer Register (PRTR; see CBS, 2009). The objective is to document the methodologies used in the PRTR regarding PM emissions from shipping, including any implemented updates. Furthermore, it is also considered important, now and in the future, to provide internationally accessible and transparent descriptions of the Dutch methodology. Such a concise (English) documentation was not yet available. Sometimes the PRTR methodology was updated since the original report or protocol was published. In such cases, the change has been documented 1 This is the predecessor of the current Directorate-General Civil Aviation and Maritime Affairs (DGLM) and if applicable explained by providing reference and/or inclusion of the underlying motivation. This implies that for some specific features e.g. the correction of SO2 emission due to introduction of low sulphur fuels the current report can be seen as an update of the in-use methodology. As such the report will be presented to the PRTR for discussion and as an optional documentation of the in-use methodology. The report also contains e.g. as a result of a review of recent literature on the impact of fuel quality on emissions, suggestions how the PRTR could be improved. An original contribution in this report is the methodology to consistently estimate emissions from total European inland shipping. Although this methodology is less accurate than the current PRTR approach, it is less data demanding and can be applied to all European countries based on freight statistics. Total PM10 emission in Europe due to inland shipping is estimated at ~ 7kton/yr making it a minor source. However, locally it can be important. The Netherlands contributes about 15 % to this total. A review of the methodology and underlying data to estimate emissions from inland shipping in the Netherlands show that over time the vessels grow in size and an update of emission factors would be needed as it is currently based on the year 2003 survey. Especially PM10 emission factors for inland shipping are considered uncertain.A major achievement under the EMS project was the development of a methodology for estimating emissions from seagoing ships at berth. Accurate estimates of emissions from ships at berth demand reliable knowledge of the fuel consumption while at berth and associated fuel characteristics. Since assured information about energy use and fuel consumption of seagoing ships at berth is scarce, a survey of energy consumption and fuel use on board of 89 seagoing ships was made in 2003 as part of the EMS close cooperation with the Port of Rotterdam. In this report the survey results as well as the emission estimations are compared to the (scarce) information that is available outside the Netherlands. The compiled survey data underlie the current Dutch emission estimation methodology for emissions of ships at berth. As a part of this BOP project this methodology is now also internationally presented and published (Hulskotte and Denier van der Gon 2008, 2009). A remarkable finding from the on-board survey was that in 2003 heavy fuel oil (HFO) was the dominant energy source for ships at berth. The fuel type used in marine engines and the quality of that fuel has a major impact on the amount of PM emitted. Especially the sulphur content and ash content of heavy fuel oil has a large impact on PM emission as well as the share of finer PM2.5 in PM10 emissions. In theory the effect of the composition is covered by the overall emission factor. However, recent regulations e.g. SECA (sulphur emission control areas) zones, cause the fuel quality to change and hence emission factors need to be adjusted. A methodology to adjust the PM emission factors with changing sulphur content is presented in the report as well as a suggestion for adjustment of the current in-use PM2.5 fraction of PM10. Currently the PRTR uses a PM2.5 fraction of 95% in PM10 whereas recent literature suggests this is an overestimation. Based on the present report the PRTR may consider an adjustment and/or some further study on this subject. Finally, the report notes and discusses new developments such as field measurements of shipping emissions and the use of AIS (automatic identification system) to estimate shipping emissions. Recommendations for further research, based on new developments as well as weaknesses in the current methodologies are discussed in the final section of this report Last but not least it should be stressed that the present report is not a complete documentation of shipping-related emissions in the Netherlands. The goal of BOP is to reduce uncertainties about particulate matter (PM) and hence a complete documentation of all methodologies to estimate all other (non-PM) pollutants from shipping is out of scope of the present report.