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Impact of aquaculture on the aquatic environment in relation to applied production systems
Papoutsoglou, S.E. (1992). Impact of aquaculture on the aquatic environment in relation to applied production systems, in: De Pauw, N. et al. (Ed.) Aquaculture and the Environment: reviews of the International Conference Aquaculture Europe '91, Dublin, Ireland, June 10-12, 1991. EAS Special Publication, 16: pp. 71-78
In: De Pauw, N.; Joyce, J. (Ed.) (1992). Aquaculture and the Environment: reviews of the International Conference Aquaculture Europe '91, Dublin, Ireland, June 10-12, 1991. EAS Special Publication, 16. European Aquaculture Society: Gent, Belgium. ISBN 90-71625-10-9. 536 pp., more
In: EAS Special Publication. European Aquaculture Society, more

Available in Author 
    VLIZ: Proceedings [14614]
Document type: Conference paper

Keyword
    Marine

Author  Top 
  • Papoutsoglou, S.E.

Abstract
    The practical meaning of the aquaculture impact on the aquatic environment is mainly related to fish controlled production. Metabolites, uneaten food and chemicals are the main reasons for the creation of ecological imbalances in the aquatic environment. Simple extensive, semi-extensive, semi-intensive, intensive and superintensive, are the nowadays known aquaculture production systems. Their application as well as their expected final production is strongly related to the total human input of actions or interferences. The lower the input action level, the lower the final production is to be expected and vice versa. The application of the simple extensive, semi-extensive, and semi-intensive production systems (using earthen ponds and enclosures), has to be considered as the most "innocent" with regard to its impact on the aquatic environment, as the philosophy of the operation of these systems is based on a well-balanced aquatic environment. It always has to be remembered that in the case of these systems the environment is not only a rearing space, but also serves as the main food producer for the cultured fish. On the contrary , in the application of the intensive production systems (very high rearing densities) the aquatic environment is used only as a rearing space; the required food, in this case, is given to the fish by means of artificial diets. Hence, the application of this system could be considered as the only one for a possible creation of serious ecological imbalance in the aquatic environment. The operation of this system is made possible by means of land-based constructions (raceways, tanks) or net cages. The use of the former technique can easily be made harmless to the aquatic environment, by purification treatments of the rearing water before it meets the natural water bodies. However, this treatment is practically impossible when applying the net cages technique. Proper site selection, in combination with a continuous high level of farm production management, is the only possible way to make the net cages technique harmless, not only to the aquatic environment, but also to the cultured fish. The best-known fish superintensive production systems are those using recirculated water, which, due to their application-mode very easily cannot cause any harm to the aquatic environment. It has to be emphasized that the most important aquacultural aims can be achieved without any disturbance of the sensitive aquatic ecological balances, if each one of the above-mentioned systems would be applied properly. Lack of adequate understanding of the great importance of the strong relationships between the production system, the site selection procedure, the cultivated species, the size of the farm and the production management, could be included in the main reasons for the creation of environmental problems for both the rearing water and the major aquatic area.

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