|Cryopreservation of eggs and embryos of shell- and finfish (Abstract)|
Morris, G.J.; Coulson, G.E. (1989). Cryopreservation of eggs and embryos of shell- and finfish (Abstract), in: De Pauw, N. et al. (Ed.) Aquaculture: a biotechnology in progress: volume 1. pp. 563
In: De Pauw, N. et al. (Ed.) (1989). Aquaculture: a biotechnology in progress: volume 1. European Aquaculture Society: Bredene, Belgium. ISBN 90-71625-03-6. 1-592 pp., more
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- Morris, G.J.
- Coulson, G.E.
Storage under liquid nitrogen (cryopreservation) has become a standard method for the long-term maintenance of a large variety of cells. At this temperature (-196°C) cellular viability is independent of the period of storage and biological systems are genetically stable. If cryopreserved gametes of fin- and shellfish were available a number of advantages would be created. It would for example be possible to: 1) remove the dependence on breeding seasons; 2) gain access to a larger pool of genetic material; 3) enable impracticable crosses to be made; 4) insure against disease/natural disasters destroying breeding stock; 5) maintain gametes for long periods (25 years); 6) establish the veterinary status of fish before gametes are used. The sperm of many species may be successfully stored; however, eggs and embryos cannot be cryopreserved. To maximise the potential of a gamete bank it is therefore essential to develop methods for the cryopreservation of ova and embryos. Since injury to cells arising during freezing, is commonly associated with the formation of intracellular ice which can be observed microscopically as it takes place, a cryomicroscope has been constructed which enables cells to be cooled at defined rates and following defined patterns of temperature change. Cryopreservation methods may then be developed in a non-empirical manner. This paper presents results obtained on a cryomicroscope with unprotected eggs and embryos of the Japanese oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and the zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio). The effects of various cryoprotective additives on cell morphology during freezing and viability upon thawing are also presented.