|Responses of young carp, Cyprinus carpio, following immunization by direct immersion in vaccine or by injection|
Manning, M.; Mughal, S.; McDowall, A. (1989). Responses of young carp, Cyprinus carpio, following immunization by direct immersion in vaccine or by injection, in: De Pauw, N. et al. (Ed.) Aquaculture: a biotechnology in progress: volume 1. pp. 935-939
In: De Pauw, N. et al. (Ed.) (1989). Aquaculture: a biotechnology in progress: volume 1. European Aquaculture Society: Bredene, Belgium. ISBN 90-71625-03-6. 1-592 pp., more
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- Manning, M.
- Mughal, S.
- McDowall, A.
If young fish are to be vaccinated successfully, the antigen must be administered at the correct age, at the best dose, in an immunogenic form, and via an appropriate route. We have studied immuno-maturation in the carp, Cyprinus carpio, in relation to bacterial antigens (killed Aeromonas salmonicida cells). Although injection procedures provide the most effective method for administering antigens to fish, techniques more appropriate for large-scale use with very small fish are being studied. These include direct immersion of the fish in a vaccine bath.Our experiments commenced when carp fry were 4 weeks old (22±2°C). Multiple immersions were performed, the fish being allowed to swim freely in a batch containing 109 killed A. salmonicida cells.l-1. The effect of priming by direct immersion was compared with results obtained after priming by injection. In both cases the fish were challenged by injecting the same antigen in adjuvant to see whether the priming had induced positive immunological memory (i.e. an enhanced response on secondary encounter with the antigen). When the A. salmonicida bacterin was administered to 4-weeks-old carp by injection, the fish were able to give a primary antibody response, and priming led to good enhanced secondary antibody titres. Tritiated thymidine autoradiography revealed a proliferative reaction in the lymphoid tissues of the spleen and kidney, which was likewise enhanced after challenge. When the carp fry were primed by direct immersion, the primary antibody response was poor, nevertheless direct immersion immunization considerably enhanced secondary antibody levels and improved the proliferative reaction of lymphoid cells.