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A description of spawning behaviour of captive Dover sole, Solea solea (L.)
Baynes, S.M.; Howell, B.R.; Beard, T.W.; Hallam, J.D. (1994). A description of spawning behaviour of captive Dover sole, Solea solea (L.). Neth. J. Sea Res. 32(3-4): 271-275
In: Netherlands Journal of Sea Research. Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ): Groningen; Den Burg. ISSN 0077-7579, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Baynes, S.M.
  • Howell, B.R.
  • Beard, T.W.
  • Hallam, J.D.

    Video recordings were made of captive sole (Solea solea (L.)) spawning in a 1 m deep, 3 m diameter tank. Fish were recorded swimming in pairs. During four nights six separate pairings were observed, all within 3h of the main lights being turned off. Pairs formed on the tank floor by the male swimming into a position under a female where their genital pores were close. They then swam together towards the water surface with closely synchronised body movements. They remained together for up to 70s, while maintaining a head-up position just beneath the surface. Egg release itself could not be identified from the recordings, but on each occasion fertilized eggs were found in the tank on the following morning. This behaviour is compared to other accounts of flatfish spawning and discussed in relation to observations of sole seen swimming at the surface of the North Sea.

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