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Effects of tidal fluctuations of salinity on pericardial fluid composition of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica
Hand, S.C.; Stickle, W.B. (1977). Effects of tidal fluctuations of salinity on pericardial fluid composition of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 42(3): 259-271. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/BF00397750
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) [WoRMS]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Hand, S.C.
  • Stickle, W.B.

Abstract
    Crassostrea virginica Gmelin were subjected to simulated tidal fluctuations of salinity, and the subsequent effects on osmotic and ionic composition of the pericardial fluid, body water and valve movements were investigated. Ambient salinity fluctuation patterns of 20-10-20, 15-10-15 and 10-5-10 were simulated during 24.8-h periods. An additional 10-5-10 S experiment was performed using a dilution water approximating the ionic composition of Mississippi River water with regard to Mg++, Ca++ and SO 4 = , instead of deionized water. Finally the effects of a 2-week diurnal fluctuation pattern between 20 and 10 S were investigated with respect to pericardial fluid composition. Pericardial fluid osmolality, concentrations of Cl-, Na+, Mg++, K+, Ca++ and ninhydrin-positive substances (NPS) were analyzed periodically throughout all experiments. Pericardial fluid osmolality was slightly hyperosmotic as ambient water salinity decreased during a cycle, and then became slightly hyposmotic as ambient salinity increased. In the 2-week experiment, pericardial fluid osmolality tracked ambient seawater closely through Day 5, but became more intermediate between high and low seawater values as the experiment progressed. Similar patterns during fluctuations of salinity were observed for Na+, Cl-, Mg++ and Ca++. Pericardial fluid K+ levels did not track ambient seawater as closely as did other ions. The ionic composition of dilution water had little effect on the osmotic or ionic response of the oyster's pericardial fluid. Pericardial fluid NPS level varied inversely with salinity during the 20-10-20 cycle. During the longterm fluctuation experiment, NPS values gradually decreased over the 2-week period compared to constant salinity control values. Percent body water also varied inversely with ambient salinity. Solute movement accounted for most of the change in pericardial fluid osmolality during the simulated cycles with water movement responsible for 1 to 11%. Water movement contributed more to the change of pericardial fluid osmolality during the decreasing salinity phase than the increasing phase of a given cycle. During 20-10-20 S cycles, oyster valves remained open 56% of the time (n=23). In contrast, when salinity was abruptly changed from 20 to 10 within 5 min, valve closure occurred in 4.8±0.3 min (n=20). Valves did not reopen for 19.3±1.2 h (n=15).

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