|Dispersal of larvae as a means of genetic exchange between widely separated populations of shoal-water benthic invertebrate species|
Scheltema, R.S. (1972). Dispersal of larvae as a means of genetic exchange between widely separated populations of shoal-water benthic invertebrate species, in: Battaglia, B. (Ed.) Fifth European Marine Biology Symposium. pp. 101-114
In: Battaglia, B. (Ed.) (1972). Fifth European Marine Biology Symposium. Piccin Editore: Padova. 348 pp., more
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VLIZ: Proceedings 
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The rate at which genetic exchange can occur between widely separated populations of shoal-water benthic invertebrate species is limited by the frequency with which teleplanic larvae are dispersed between regions geographically isolated from one another. Data from plankton samples support the theoretical expectation that larval dispersal across the Atlantic Basin is a commonplace event. However, no matter how great the frequency of larval dispersal, the genetic characters introduced by immigrant larvae must have selective value in order to have any impact on the recipient population. Among the species of gastropods considered, those estimated to have a high frequency of larval dispersal showed little or no consistent morphological difference between their eastern and western Atlantic populations. Conversely, species having restricted larval dispersal were represented by different subspecies on either side of the Atlantic Ocean. From this evidence it is concluded (for those species studied here) that the degree of morphological differences between the widely separated populations is directly related to the frequency of larval transport and that larval dispersal may serve as an effective means for genetic exchange.