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Transregional linkages in the north-eastern Atlantic: an ‘end-to-end’ analysis of pelagic ecosystems
Fox, C.J.; Harris, R.; Sundby, S.; Achterberg, E.; Allen, I.J.; Allen, J.; Baker, A.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Buckley, P.A.; Cook, E.J.; Dye, S.R.; Edwards, M.; Fernand, L.; Kershaw, P.; Metcalfe, J.D.; Østerhus, S.; Potter, T.; Sakshaug, E.; Speirs, D.; Stenevik, E.K.; St. John, M.; Thingstad, F.; Wilson, B. (2009). Transregional linkages in the north-eastern Atlantic: an ‘end-to-end’ analysis of pelagic ecosystems. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 47: 1-76 + 25 figures
In: Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review. Aberdeen University Press/Allen & Unwin: London. ISSN 0078-3218, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Atmospheric circulation; Bathymetry; Biogeography; Climatic changes; International cooperation; Introduced species; Man-induced effects; Marine fish; Ocean currents; Pelagic environment; Phytoplankton; Pollutants; Predators; Primary production; Transport processes; Water circulation; Zooplankton; AN, North Atlantic [Marine Regions]; ANE, Greenland Sea [Marine Regions]; PN, Arctic [Marine Regions]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Fox, C.J.
  • Harris, R.
  • Sundby, S.
  • Achterberg, E.
  • Allen, I.J., more
  • Allen, J.
  • Baker, A.
  • Brussaard, C.P.D.
  • Buckley, P.A.
  • Cook, E.J.
  • Dye, S.R.
  • Edwards, M., more
  • Fernand, L.
  • Kershaw, P.
  • Metcalfe, J.D.
  • Østerhus, S.
  • Potter, T.
  • Sakshaug, E.
  • Speirs, D.
  • Stenevik, E.K.
  • St. John, M.
  • Thingstad, F.
  • Wilson, B.

Abstract
    This review examines interregional linkages and gives an overview perspective oil marine ecosystem functioning in the north-eastern Atlantic. It is based on three of the 'systems' considered by the European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis (EUR-OCEANS was established in 2004 under the European Framework VI funding programme to promote integration of marine ecological research within Europe), the Arctic and Nordic Seas, North Atlantic shelf seas and North Atlantic. The three systems share common open boundaries and the transport of water, heat, nutrients and particulates across these boundaries modifies local processes. Consistent with the EUR-OCEANS concept of 'end-to-end' analyses of marine food webs, the review takes an integrated approach linking ocean physics, lower trophic levels and working up the food web to top predators such as marine mammals. We begin with an overview of the regions focusing on the major physical patterns and their implications for the microbial community, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish and top predators. Human-induced links between the regional systems are then considered and finally possible changes in the regional linkages over the next century are discussed. Because of the scale of potential impacts of climate change, this issue is considered in a separate section. The review demonstrates that the functioning of the ecosystems in each of the regions cannot be considered in isolation and the role of the atmosphere and ocean currents in linking the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic shelf seas and the Arctic and Nordic Seas must be taken into account. Studying the North Atlantic and associated shelf seas as an integrated 'basin-scale' system will be a key challenge for the early twenty-first century. This requires a multinational approach that should lead to improved ecosystem-based approaches to conservation of natural resources, the maintenance of biodiversity, and a better understanding, of the key role of the north-eastern Atlantic in the global carbon cycle.

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