|North Atlantic summers have warmed more than winters since 1353, and the response of marine zooplankton|
Kamenos, N.A. (2010). North Atlantic summers have warmed more than winters since 1353, and the response of marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52): 22442-22447
In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. The Academy: Washington. ISSN 0027-8424, more
Modeling and measurements show that Atlantic marine temperatures are rising; however, the low temporal resolution of models and restricted spatial resolution of measurements (i) mask regional details critical for determining the rate and extent of climate variability, and (ii) prevent robust determination of climatic impacts on marine ecosystems. To address both issues for the North East Atlantic, a fortnightly resolution marine climate record from 1353–2006 was constructed for shallow inshore waters and compared to changes in marine zooplankton abundance. For the first time summer marine temperatures are shown to have increased nearly twice as much as winter temperatures since 1353. Additional climatic instability began in 1700 characterized by ∼5–65 year climate oscillations that appear to be a recent phenomenon. Enhanced summer-specific warming reduced the abundance of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, a key food item of cod, and led to significantly lower projected abundances by 2040 than at present. The faster increase of summer marine temperatures has implications for climate projections and affects abundance, and thus biomass, near the base of the marine food web with potentially significant feedback effects for marine food security.