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Seasonal cycles in whole-body proximate composition and energy content of forage fish vary with water depth
Vollenweider, J.J.; Heintz, R.A.; Schaufler, L.; Bradshaw , R. (2011). Seasonal cycles in whole-body proximate composition and energy content of forage fish vary with water depth. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 158(2): 413-427. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00227-010-1569-3
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Vollenweider, J.J.
  • Heintz, R.A.
  • Schaufler, L.
  • Bradshaw , R.

Abstract
    Quantifying the nutritional quality of forage fish is integral for understanding upper trophic levels as forage fish are the dominant prey for top predator fish, marine mammals, and sea birds. Many existing reports documenting body composition of forage species are not comparable due to confounding effects. This study systematically assessed the variability in proximate composition and energy content of 16 forage species in southeastern Alaska (57.2626 N/133.7394 W) between 2001 and 2004. Variation in energy and lipid contents was related to habitat, epipelagic planktivores varying most, mesopelagics intermediate, and demersal species relatively invariable. Season was the greatest source of variation as a result of short growing seasons at high latitude and energy allocation strategies for reproduction and growth. Among species that varied seasonally, energy and lipid increased over summer and declined during winter. Annual differences in body composition occurred during periods of peak energy content. Sampling recommendations and guidance for bioenergetics models are provided.

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