|A marine plant (Spartina anglica) invades widely varying habitats: potential mechanisms of invasion and control|
Hacker, S.D.; Heimer, D.; Hellquist, E.; Reeder, T.G.; Reeves, B.; Riordan, T.J.; Dethier, M.N. (2001). A marine plant (Spartina anglica) invades widely varying habitats: potential mechanisms of invasion and control. Biological Invasions 3: 211-217
In: Biological Invasions. Springer: London. ISSN 1387-3547, more
|Authors|| || Top |
- Hacker, S.D.
- Heimer, D.
- Hellquist, E.
- Reeder, T.G.
- Reeves, B.
- Riordan, T.J.
- Dethier, M.N.
We report on the habitat dependent invasion and control pattern of the English cordgrass, Spartina anglica C. E. Hubbard, in Puget Sound, Washington. In 36 years, the plant has successfully invaded 73 sites, affecting 3311 ha of marine intertidal habitat, which if allowed to solidly fill, would equal ∼400 ha. Invasion and control both depend on habitat type. Mudflats and low salinity marshes have significantly more solid area of S. anglica than do high salinity marshes and cobble beaches. Control efforts since 1997 have resulted in a 13% decline of the grass. We find that high salinity marshes have the greatest decline (∼70%), low salinity marshes have the lowest decline (∼10%), and mudflat (∼29%) and cobble beaches (∼21%) have intermediate losses. We hypothesize that invasion success and control are dependent on a relatively complex interplay between habitat physical conditions and species interactions.