|Controlling sediment accumulation behind the locks of Zandvliet and Berendrecht|
De Broe, E. (2003). Controlling sediment accumulation behind the locks of Zandvliet and Berendrecht. Bull. Perm. Int. Assoc. Navig. Congr. 112: 41-64
In: Bulletin of the Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses = Bulletin de l'Association Internationale Permanente des Congrès de Navigation. PIANC/PIANC = AIPCN: Bruxelles. ISSN 0374-1001, more
The port facilities and docks at the Port of Antwerp lie, for the most part, behind large maritime locks. The Boudewijn, Van Cauwelaert, Zandvliet and Berendrecht locks rank among the largest locks in the world and are used more than 9.000 times a year. Each lock operation necessarily involves a physical contact between the freshwater in the port's docks and the brackish water in the river Scheldt. The engineers at the Port of Antwe1p Authority, assisted by the engineering consultants at Haecon and S.A. Kamminga b.v., have carried out an in-depth survey and study of the water exchange mechanisms within these locks. These study activities included survey techniques, computational modelling and conceptual engineering. The in-situ investigations furnished hard evidence of near-bed density flows (a saline wedge), laden with silt. That sediment transport regime is now recognized as the most important source of siltation in the Port of Antwerp. The dispersion pattern of this silt within the dock areas exposes these sediments to contamination by industrial and domestic waste-water effluents; hence, the Port is faced with a dual problem: the maintenance dredging and the management of contaminated dredged material. With that in mind, the study team came up with a handful of technically feasible solutions to control these density flows and, hence, the port's siltation. Conceptual solutions were developed, costed and ranked according to their technicaleconomic feasibility. Finally, real-time validation tests were performed in situ, using the salt-water capture infrastructure of the Zandvliet lock.