|Can species traits be used to predict marine macroalgal introductions?|
|Nyberg, C.D.; Wallentinus, I. (2005). Can species traits be used to predict marine macroalgal introductions? Biological Invasions 7: 265-279|
|In: Biological Invasions. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 1387-3547, more|
Distribution; Introduced species; Traits; Marine
Species traits which facilitate introduction and predominance have been quantitatively ranked using interval arithmetic to search for common patterns among 113 marine macroalgae introduced in Europe. Three main categories were used: dispersal, establishment and ecological impact. These were further subdivided into more specific categories, a total of 13. Introduced species were compared with the same number of native species randomized from the same families as the introduced. Invasive species (i.e. species having a negative ecological or economical impact) were also compared with non-invasive introductions, separately for the three algal groups. In many categories, as well as when adding all species, the introduced species ranked more hazardous than the native species and the invasive species ranked higher than the non-invasive ones. The ranking within the three main categories differed, reflecting different strategies between the species within the three algal groups. When all categories (excluding salinity and temperature) were summed, the top five risk species, all invasive, were, in descending order, Codium fragile spp. tomentosoides, Caulerpa taxifolia, Undaria pinnatifida, Asparagopsis armata and Grateloupia doryphora, while Sargassum muticum ranked eight and Caulerpa racemosa ten. Fifteen of the twenty-six species listed as invasive were among the twenty highest ranked.