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Development and testing of a new protocol for evaluating the effectiveness of oil spill surface washing agents
Koran, K.M.; Venosa, A.D.; Luedeker, C.C.; Dunnigan, K.; Sorial, G.A. (2009). Development and testing of a new protocol for evaluating the effectiveness of oil spill surface washing agents. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 58(12): 1903-1908
In: Marine Pollution Bulletin. Macmillan: London. ISSN 0025-326X, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Keywords
    Cleaning agents; Crude oil; Dispersants; Oil spills; Solvents; Substrata; Surfactants; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Koran, K.M.
  • Venosa, A.D.
  • Luedeker, C.C.
  • Dunnigan, K.
  • Sorial, G.A.

Abstract
    As defined by the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), a surface washing agent (SWA) is a product that removes oil from solid surfaces, such as beaches, rocks, and concrete, through a detergency mechanism and that does not involve dispersing or solubilizing the oil into the water column. Commercial products require testing to qualify for listing on the NCP Product Schedule. Such testing is conducted both for toxicity and effectiveness. Protocols currently exist for bioremediation agents and dispersants, but not SWAs. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a laboratory testing protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of SWAs in removing crude oil from a solid substrate. This paper summarizes some of the defining research supporting this new protocol. Multiple variables were tested to determine their effect on SWA performance. The protocol was most sensitive to SWA-to-oil ratio and rotational speed of mixing. Less sensitive variables were contact time, mixing time, and SWA concentration when total applied mass of active product was constant. EPA recommendations for the testing protocol will be made following round robin testing.

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