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Biological vs. physical mixing effects on benthic food web dynamics
Braeckman, U.; Provoost, P.; Moens, T.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J. (2011). Biological vs. physical mixing effects on benthic food web dynamics. PLoS One 6(3): e18078. dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018078
In: PLoS One. Public Library of Science: San Francisco. ISSN 1932-6203, more
Peer reviewed article

Also published as
  • Braeckman, U.; Provoost, P.; Moens, T.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J. (2011). Biological vs. physical mixing effects on benthic food web dynamics, in: Braeckman, U. (2011). Macrobenthos structuring the sea floor: importance of its functional biodiversity for the benthic ecosystem = De structurerende rol van macrobenthos in de zeebodem: belang van de functionele biodiversiteit voor het benthische ecosysteem. pp. 77-101, more

Available in Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 221804 [ OMA ]

Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Middelburg, J.J., more
  • Vincx, M., more
  • Vanaverbeke, J., more

Abstract
    Biological particle mixing (bioturbation) and solute transfer (bio-irrigation) contribute extensively to ecosystem functioning in sediments where physical mixing is low. Macrobenthos transports oxygen and organic matter deeper into the sediment, thereby likely providing favourable niches to lower trophic levels (i.e., smaller benthic animals such as meiofauna and bacteria) and thus stimulating mineralisation. Whether this biological transport facilitates fresh organic matter assimilation by the metazoan lower part of the food web through niche establishment (i.e., ecosystem engineering) or rather deprives them from food sources, is so far unclear. We investigated the effects of the ecosystem engineers Lanice conchilega (bio-irrigator) and Abra alba (bioturbator) compared to abiotic physical mixing events on survival and food uptake of nematodes after a simulated phytoplankton bloom. The 13C labelled diatom Skeletonema costatum was added to 4 treatments: (1) microcosms containing the bioturbator, (2) microcosms containing the bio-irrigator, (3) control microcosms and (4) microcosms with abiotic manual surface mixing. Nematode survival and subsurface peaks in nematode density profiles were most pronounced in the bio-irrigator treatment. However, nematode specific uptake (?d13C) of the added diatoms was highest in the physical mixing treatment, where macrobenthos was absent and the diatom 13C was homogenised. Overall, nematodes fed preferentially on bulk sedimentary organic material rather than the added diatoms. The total C budget (µg C m-2), which included TO13C remaining in the sediment, respiration, nematode and macrobenthic uptake, highlighted the limited assimilation by the metazoan benthos and the major role of bacterial respiration. In summary, bioturbation and especially bio-irrigation facilitated the lower trophic levels mainly over the long-term through niche establishment. Since the freshly added diatoms represented only a limited food source for nematodes, the macrobenthic effect was more pronounced in niche establishment than the negative structuring effects such as competition.

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