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18S rRNA suggests that Entoprocta are protostomes, unrelated to Ectoprocta
Mackey, L.Y.; Winnepenninckx, B.; De Wachter, R.; Backeljau, T.; Emschermann, P.; Garey, J.R. (1996). 18S rRNA suggests that Entoprocta are protostomes, unrelated to Ectoprocta. J. Mol. Evol. 42: 552-559. hdl.handle.net/10067/157710151162165141
In: Journal of Molecular Evolution. Springer-Verlag: New York. ISSN 0022-2844, more
Peer reviewed article

Available in Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 222289 [ OMA ]

Keywords
    Ectoprocta [WoRMS]; Entoprocta [WoRMS]; Protostomias; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Mackey, L.Y.
  • Winnepenninckx, B., more
  • De Wachter, R.
  • Backeljau, T., more
  • Emschermann, P.
  • Garey, J.R.

Abstract
    The Ento- and Ectoprocta are sometimes placed together in the Bryozoa, which have variously been regarded as proto- or deuterostomes. However, Entoprocta have also been allied to the pseudocoelomates, while Ectoprocta are often united with the Brachiopoda and Phoronida in the (super)phylum Lophophorata. Hence, the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa are still much debated. We determined complete 18S rRNA sequences of two entoprocts, an ectoproct, an inarticulate brachiopod, a phoronid, two annelids, and a platyhelminth. Phylogenetic analyses of these data show that (1) entoprocts and lophophorates have spiralian, protostomous affinities, (2) Ento- and Ectoprocta are not sister taxa, (3) phoronids and brachiopods form a monophyletic clade, and (4) neither Ectoprocta or Annelida appear to be monophyletic. Both deuterostomous and pseudocoelomate features may have arisen at least two times in evolutionary history. These results advocate a Spiralia-Radialia-based classification rather than one based on the Protostomia-Deuterostomia concept.

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