|Preliminary analyses of cultured Symbiodinium isolated from sand in the oceanic Ogasawara Islands, Japan|
|Reimer, J.D.; Shah, M.M.R.; Sinniger, F.; Yanagi, K.; Suda, S. (2010). Preliminary analyses of cultured Symbiodinium isolated from sand in the oceanic Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Mar. Biodiv. 40(4): 237-247|
|In: Marine Biodiversity. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 1867-1616, more|
Dinoflagellates; Zooxanthellae; Symbiodinium Freudenthal, 1962 [WoRMS]; ISEW, Japan, Bonin I. [gazetteer]; Marine
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The dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium is generally found in many tropical and subtropical marine invertebrates. Recently, reports have focused on free-living types. We examined free-living Symbiodinium from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, a group of oceanic islands south of Japan. Examining sand samples, seven of eight initial isolates were successfully cultured. Genetic analyses of 18S, 28S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA regions reveal that one isolate cultured with only IMK was identical to clade A isolated from coral reef sand in Okinawa, and four additional isolates cultured with only IMK comprised a new clade A lineage. Additionally, two isolates cultured with IMK and soil extract were closely related to a little-known divergent lineage within clade D. Our results demonstrate some free-living Symbiodinium types may have very wide distributions, and that utilizing different culturing techniques will further discovery of unique Symbiodinium lineages from environmental samples.