|Modelling the effects of sand extraction, on sediment transport due to tides, on the Kwinte Bank|
|Van den Eynde, D.; Giardino, A.; Portilla, J.; Fettweis, M.; Francken, F.; Monbaliu, J. (2010). Modelling the effects of sand extraction, on sediment transport due to tides, on the Kwinte Bank. J. Coast. Res. SI 51: 101-116|
|In: Journal of Coastal Research. Coastal Education and Research Foundation: Fort Lauderdale. ISSN 0749-0208, more|
ANE, Belgium, Flemish Banks, Kwinte Bank [gazetteer]; ANE, North Sea, Southern Bight [gazetteer]; Marine
Sandbank; sand extraction; morphological evolution; numerical modelling; Southern North Sea
|Authors|| || Top |
In recent years, the exploitation of marine aggregates is increasing. As an example, on the Belgian continental shelf, one particular sandbank (the Kwinte Bank) is exploited extensively; this has led to the creation of a 5 m deep depression along its central part. In the present contribution, the influence of these bathymetric changes, on erosion and sedimentation patterns are studied, using numerical modelling, in order to obtain an initial impression of the effect of such intense sand extraction on the stability of the sandbank. Different numerical models are utilised. Twodimensional and three-dimensional hydrodynamic models have been used to derive currents, whilst third generation wave models have been used to simulate the waves. Two different models are presented, which calculate the total load sediment transport as a function of the local currents and waves. These models have been used to investigate the erosional and depositional patterns. The use of two different sediment transport models has some advantages, since the results of sediment transport models are still subject to some important uncertainties. The hydrodynamic model results are validated using ADCP current data, confirming the good performance of the models. Likewise the wave models provide good results, comparing their results with data from a buoy. The sediment transport model results were compared to the residual transport patterns, derived from the asymmetry of dunes. The results obtained seem to be in general agreement with these observations. The numerical models are used to simulate the response of the sediment transport to extensive sand extraction from the sandbank. One ‘worst-case’ scenario and two more realistic scenarios were simulated, whilst the effect of these bathymetric changes on sediment transport was studied. The results show that the intense sand extraction does not seem to influence extensively the stability of the sandbank, but that, as a consequence, there is less erosion and deposition. The model results show, for all of the scenarios, a small amount of deposition on the top of the sandbank; this could be an indication of a regeneration mechanism. A trench, created perpendicular to the crest of the sandbank, could be slowly refilled again. The time-scale of this regeneration and the influence of storms remain uncertain. Although the main emphasis of the paper relates to tidal forcing, a brief discussion is included on the influence of wave action, on sediment transport.