|Ecological insights into the polyp stage of non-native hydrozoans in the San Francisco Estuary|
|Wintzer, A.P.; Meek, M.H.; Moyler, P.B.; May, B. (2011). Ecological insights into the polyp stage of non-native hydrozoans in the San Francisco Estuary. Aquat. Ecol. 45(2): 151-161|
|In: Aquatic Ecology. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 1386-2588, more|
Ecology; Polyps; Hydrozoa [WoRMS]; INE, USA, California, San Francisco Estuary [gazetteer]; Brackish water
The populations of several invasive jellyfish appear to be increasing around the globe. While data on non-native hydromedusae in the San Francisco Estuary have been accumulating in recent years, little is known regarding their polyp phase. The goal of this study was to gather the first field-derived ecological data for polyp stages of Blackfordia virginica, Moerisia sp., and Cordylophora caspia in the estuary. Monthly fouling plates were deployed at five sites during 2007 and 2008. Settlement data indicate a seasonal presence of B. virginica and Moerisia sp., with both distribution and abundance correlated with a combination of water quality and physical parameters. Cordylophora caspia appeared to be present beyond the time period sampled and may be active in the system year-round. The ability of polyps to persist month to month was low, likely due to predation by other non-native species and competition for space.