|The ligament of the Lucinacea (Eulamellibranchia)|
Allen, J.A. (1960). The ligament of the Lucinacea (Eulamellibranchia). Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 101(1): 25-36
In: Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. J. & A. Churchill Ltd./Clarendon Press: Oxford. ISSN 0370-2952, more
The basic structure of the opisthodetic ligament of the Lucinacea consists primarily of inner layer, anterior and posterior outer layers, and periostracum. This is secondarily extended by fused periostracum and fusion layer. Fused periostracum extends as far as the posterior adductor muscle and, except in the Ungulinidae, to the anterior adductor. The fusion layer covers the posterior outer layer and a little beyond. Only in Loripes lucinalis is the fusion layer to be found anteriorly. Below the umbos the inner layer, posterior outer layer, and overlying fusion layer are split. This split can be explained in terms of the growth and form of the shell. The anterior outer layer fills the split and extends to the anterior limit of the lunule. The ligament, external in the Ungulinidae, becomes progressively more internal. At the same time the posterior limit of the outer layer becomes modified as a result of the elongation of the outer surface of the outer mantle fold between the pallial lobes in the depth of the posterior mantle embayment. The Lucinidae are most specialized in this respect where, in L. lucinalis, a tongue of tissue divides much of the ligament horizontally. The Thyasiridae, the remaining family of the group, occupies an intermediate stage in this specialization.