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Geologist at sea: Aspects of ocean history
Berger, W.H. (2011). Geologist at sea: Aspects of ocean history. Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. 3: 1-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-120709-142831
In: Annual Review of Marine Science. Annual Reviews: Palo Alto, Calif. ISSN 1941-1405, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Author 
Document type: Review

Keywords
    Historical account; Marine geology; Marine
Author keywords
    ocean history; deep-sea sediments; Quaternary; Cenozoic; whaleevolution; climate history

Author  Top 
  • Berger, W.H.

Abstract
    Ocean history is largely read from deep-sea sediments, using microscopic fossils, notably foraminifers. Ice age fluctuations in the ocean's sediments provided for a new geologic understanding of climate change. The discovery of rapid decay of ice masses at the end of glacial periods was especially important, yielding rates of sea level rise reaching values of 1 to 2 m per century for millennia. Thanks to deep-ocean drilling, the overall planetary cooling trend in the Cenozoic was recognized as occurring in three large steps. The first step is at the Eocene–Oligocene boundary and is marked by a great change in sedimentation patterns; the second is in the middle Miocene, associated with a major pulse in the buildup of Antarctic ice masses and the intensification of upwelling regimes; and the third is within the late Pliocene and led into the northern ice ages. Evolution in the sea is linked to these various steps.

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