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Biofilms and marine invertebrate larvae: What bacteria produce that larvae use to choose settlement sites
Hadfield, M.G. (2011). Biofilms and marine invertebrate larvae: What bacteria produce that larvae use to choose settlement sites. Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. 3: 453-470. dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-120709-142753
In: Annual Review of Marine Science. Annual Reviews: Palo Alto, Calif.. ISSN 1941-1405, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Document type: Review

Keywords
    Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883) [nomen protectum] [WoRMS]; Polychaeta [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    Hydroides elegans; polychaete; extracellular polymeric substances; chemosensory receptors; metamorphosis; larval behavior; settlement cue; biofilm

Author  Top 
  • Hadfield, M.G.

Abstract
    Communities of microorganisms form thin coats across solid surfaces in the sea. Larvae of many marine invertebrates use biofilm components as cues to appropriate settlement sites. Research on the tube-dwelling polychaete worm Hydroides elegans, a globally common member of biofouling communities, is described to exemplify approaches to understanding biofilm bacteria as a source of settlement cues and larvae as bearers of receptors for bacterial cues. The association of species of the bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas with larval settlement in many phyla is described, and the question of whether cues are soluble or surface-bound is reviewed, concluding that most evidence points to surface-bound cues. Seemingly contradictory data for stimulation of barnacle settlement are discussed; possibly both explanations are true. Paleontological evidence reveals a relationship between metazoans and biofilms very early in metazoan evolution, and thus the receptors for bacterial cues of invertebrate larvae are very old and possibly unique. Finally, despite more than 60 years of intense investigation, we still know very little about either the bacterial ligands that stimulate larval settlement or the cellular basis of their detection by larvae.

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