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Complex interactions in a rapidly changing world: responses of rocky shore communities to recent climate change
Hawkins, S.J.; Moore, P.J.; Burrows, M.T.; Poloczanska, E.; Mieszkowska, N.; Herbert, R.J.H.; Jenkins, S.R.; Thompson, R.C.; Genner, M.J.; Southward, A.J. (2008). Complex interactions in a rapidly changing world: responses of rocky shore communities to recent climate change, in: Fortier, L. et al. (Ed.) Effects of Climate Change on Marine Ecosystems: selected papers from Inter-Research Symposium No. 2, held in conjunction with the 42nd European Marine Biology Symposium (EMBS), August 27-31, 2007, Kiel, Germany. Climate Research, 37, 2-3(CR Special 18): pp. 123-133. dx.doi.org/10.3354/cr00768
In: Fortier, L. et al. (Ed.) (2008). Effects of Climate Change on Marine Ecosystems: selected papers from Inter-Research Symposium No. 2, held in conjunction with the 42nd European Marine Biology Symposium (EMBS), August 27-31, 2007, Kiel, Germany. Climate Research, 37, 2-3(CR Special 18). Inter-Research: Oldendorf. 121-270 pp., more
In: Climate Research. Inter-Research: Oldendorf/Luhe. ISSN 0936-577X, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 
Document type: Conference paper

Keyword
    Marine
Author keywords
    Climate change; Rocky shores; Time series; Grazer-algae interactions; Ecological forecasting; Adaptational policy; Europe

Authors  Top 
  • Hawkins, S.J.
  • Moore, P.J.
  • Burrows, M.T.
  • Poloczanska, E.
  • Mieszkowska, N., more
  • Herbert, R.J.H.
  • Jenkins, S.R., more
  • Thompson, R.C.
  • Genner, M.J.
  • Southward, A.J., more

Abstract
    Warming of the planet has accelerated in recent years and is predicted to continue over the next 50 to 100 yr. Evidence of responses to present warming in marine ecosystems include shifts in the geographic range of species as well as in the composition of pelagic and demersal fish, benthic and intertidal assemblages. Here we provide a review of the changes in geographic distributions and population abundance of species detected on rocky shores of the NE Atlantic over the last 60 yr. This period encompassed the warm 1950s, a colder period between 1963 and the late 1980s and the recent period of accelerating warming to levels above those of the 1950s. The likely consequences of these responses are then explored. To do this, a summary of the dynamic balance between grazers, macroalgae and barnacles in structuring mid-shore communities is given before outlining experimental work on interactions between key components of rocky shore communities. Modelling and quantitative forecasting were used to predict changes in community composition and dynamics in a warmer world and their consequences for ecosystem functioning discussed. We then identify areas that need further work before making a case for the use of rocky shore species not just as inexpensive indicators of change offshore, but as tractable models to explore the direct and indirect effects of climate change in marine and coastal ecosystems. We also provide a societal perspective emphasising the value of long-term studies in informing adaptation to climate change.

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