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Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index
Tomlinson, D.L.; Wilson, J.G.; Harris, C.R.; Jeffrey, D.W. (1980). Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index, in: Kinne, O. et al. (Ed.) Protection of life in the sea: 14th European Marine Biology Symposium, 23-29 September 1979, Helgoland. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 33(1-4): pp. 566-575
In: Kinne, O.; Bulnheim, H.-P. (Ed.) (1980). Protection of life in the sea: 14th European Marine Biology Symposium, 23-29 September 1979, Helgoland. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 33(1-4). Biologische Anstalt Helgoland: Hamburg. 772 pp., more
In: Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen. Biologische Anstalt Helgoland: Hamburg. ISSN 0174-3597, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 
Document type: Conference paper

Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Tomlinson, D.L.
  • Wilson, J.G.
  • Harris, C.R.
  • Jeffrey, D.W.

Abstract
    Most estuaries receive a high heavy-metal input from industries. This is reflected in the relatively high levels found in numerous estuarine organisms and in sediments. Many indicators have been suggested for facilitating the detection of heavy-metal pollution, but the problems in using these indicators to evaluate the metal loading of estuaries are considerable. Variations in species composition, and conditions at different sites, differences in season of sampling, and age of organism, as well as different metal levels in different parts of the organism, make the interpretation of results difficult. The levels reported here, similar to those in other unpolluted estuaries, have been used to suggest a baseline concentration for heavy metals in estuaries. The concept of a baseline is fundamental to the formation of a "Biological Quality Index" and "Pollution Load Index," and a formula for such an index is suggested and tested at a preliminary level against published data for an English and a European estuary.

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