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Silicon uptake by sponges: a twist to understanding nutrient cycling on continental margins
Maldonado, M.; Navarro, L.; Grasa, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Vaquerizo, I. (2011). Silicon uptake by sponges: a twist to understanding nutrient cycling on continental margins. NPG Scientific Reports 1(30). dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep00030
In: Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group). Nature Publishing Group: London. ISSN 2045-2322, more
Peer reviewed article

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Keywords
    Continental margins; Nutrient cycles; Silicon; Sponges; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Maldonado, M.
  • Navarro, L.
  • Grasa, A.
  • Gonzalez, A.
  • Vaquerizo, I.

Abstract
    About 75% of extant sponge species use dissolved silicon (DSi) to build a siliceous skeleton. We show that silicon (Si) uptake by sublittoral Axinella demosponges follows an enzymatic kinetics. Interestingly, maximum uptake efficiency occurs at experimental DSi concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than those in the sponge habitats, being unachievable in coastal waters of modern oceans. Such uptake performance appears to be rooted in a former condition suitable to operate at the seemingly high DSi values characterizing the pre-Tertiary (>65 mya) habitats where this sponge lineage diversified. Persistence of ancestral uptake systems causes sponges to be outcompeted by the more efficient uptake of diatoms at the low ambient DSi levels characterizing Recent oceans. Yet, we show that sublittoral sponges consume substantial coastal DSi (0.01–0.90 mmol Si m-2 day-1) at the expenses of the primary-production circuit. Neglect of that consumption hampers accurate understanding of Si cycling on continental margins.

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