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An integrative approach to characterize cryptic species in the Thoracostoma trachygaster Hope, 1967 complex (Nematoda: Leptosomatidae)
Silva de Oliveira, D.A.; Decraemer, W.; Holovachov, O.; Burr, J.; De Ley, I.T.; De Ley, P.; Moens, T.; Derycke, S. (2012). An integrative approach to characterize cryptic species in the Thoracostoma trachygaster Hope, 1967 complex (Nematoda: Leptosomatidae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 164(1): 18-35. dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00758.x
In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Academic Press: London. ISSN 0024-4082, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 231623 [ OMA ]

Keywords
    Leptosomatidae Filipjev, 1916 [WoRMS]; Nematoda [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    California; COI; D2D3; integrative taxonomy; ITS; marine; morphology

Authors  Top 
  • Silva de Oliveira, D.A.
  • Decraemer, W., more
  • Holovachov, O., more
  • Burr, J.
  • De Ley, I.T.
  • De Ley, P.
  • Moens, T., more
  • Derycke, S., more

Abstract
    Nematode diversity may seriously be underestimated when taking into account cryptic speciation. Thoracostoma trachygaster is commonly found in kelp holdfasts along the California coastline and was recently shown to consist of at least two distinct molecular clades (I and II). Here, we provide detailed morphological analysis of both clades, based on measurements taken from video vouchers of respectively eight and 16 individuals from the previous study, as well as 80 newly collected specimens from four Californian beaches. The latter were vouchered, measured, and then subjected to molecular analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) gene, and the ribosomal D2D3 and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. This integrative approach shows that the three molecular clades are phylogenetically and morphologically distinct species, but a combination of morphological characters is needed to distinguish them. Two new species, Thoracostoma fatimae sp. nov. and Thoracostoma igniferum sp. nov., are identified and described. The spicule length of T. fatimae sp. nov. is significantly shorter than that of T. trachygaster. Thoracostoma igniferum sp. nov. can be distinguished by the irregular posterior edge of the cephalic capsule and the two internal subdorsal tropis-like projections in the wall of the cephalic capsule, which are lacking in T. fatimae sp. nov. and T. trachygaster.

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