|Quantitative composition of the defensive secretion of Bledius species (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Oxytelinae) is adapted to naturally occurring predators|
|Steidle, J.L.M.; Dettner, K. (1993). Quantitative composition of the defensive secretion of Bledius species (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Oxytelinae) is adapted to naturally occurring predators. Chemoecology 4(2): 63-71. dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01241675|
|In: Chemoecology. Birkhauser Verlag AG: Basel. ISSN 0937-7409, more|
Chemical defence; Predator prey interactions; Synergism; Bledius Leach, 1819 [WoRMS]; Carabidae [WoRMS]; Coleoptera [WoRMS]; Staphylinidae Latreille, 1804 [WoRMS]; Marine
The adaptation of defensive secretions to their target organisms was examined for the abdominal gland secretions of Bledius furcatus, B. spectabilis and B. arenarius. Therefore the target organisms of the secretion of these Bledius species i.e. their predators) had to be identified. At the collection sites examined these were the earwig Labidura riparia, the ant Cataglyphis bicolor, the fly Lispe candicans, different carabids of the genera Pogonus, Dichirotrichus, Dyschirius, Bembidion and Calathus and the wading birds Haematopus ostralegus and Calidris alba. The secretion of the abdominal glands contains the toxin ptoluquinone dissolved in either y-dodecalactone and 1-undecene (B. furcatus and B. spectabilis) or in octanoic acid and octyloctanoate (B. arenarius). The ratio of these solvents is species-specific. Application experiments using some of the natural insect predators (L. riparia, C. bicolor, Pogonus, Di. gustavii, Dyschirius) revealed that these solvent ratios provided a more effective deterrent than other possible ratios. Thus by combining the solvents in certain ratios, the capability of cuticular penetration and therefore the effectiveness of the defensive secretions are adapted to their natural targets.