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Twenty years of Belgian North Sea aerial surveillance: A quantitative analysis of results confirms effectiveness of international oil pollution legislation
Lagring, R.; Degraer, S.; de Montpellier, G.; Jacques, T.G.; Van Roy, W.; Schallier, R. (2012). Twenty years of Belgian North Sea aerial surveillance: A quantitative analysis of results confirms effectiveness of international oil pollution legislation. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64(3): 644-652. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.11.029
In: Marine Pollution Bulletin. Macmillan: London. ISSN 0025-326X, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 232818 [ OMA ]

Keywords
    Aerial surveys; Oil pollution; Regulations; Shipping; ANE, Belgium, Belgian Coast [Marine Regions]; ANE, Belgium, Belgian Continental Shelf (BCS) [Marine Regions]; Marine
Author keywords
    Chronic oil pollution; International shipping regulations; IMO MARPOL Special Area; EU Directive on Port Reception Facilities; Aerial surveillance

Authors  Top 
  • Lagring, R., more
  • Degraer, S., more
  • de Montpellier, G., more

Abstract
    Over the years many policy measures have been taken to prevent illegal oil discharges from ships, like the MARPOL 73/78 Convention (1983) and the Bonn Agreement (1969/1983). However, the number of discharges remained high, leading to chronic oiling of seabirds and sensitive coastlines, therefore further measures were taken. The aim of this study is to quantify the effectiveness of two key legislative regulations: the IMO-designation of the North Sea as MARPOL Special Area which took effect in 1999, and the adoption of the EU Directive on Port Reception Facilities in 2000. Under study is the heavily navigated Belgian Surveillance Area, monitored since 1991, characterised by shallow waters with ecologically important sandbanks. The aerial surveillance data from 1991 to 2010 show a stepwise decrease in ship-source oil pollution. Three time periods can be distinguished with two turning points coinciding with the actual implementation of these key legislative measures, confirming their effectiveness.

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