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|Persistent dinoflagellate blooms in a small marine cove: I. Effect of wind and tidal currents|
|Furnas, M.J.; Smayda, T.J.; Tomas, C.R. (1989). Persistent dinoflagellate blooms in a small marine cove: I. Effect of wind and tidal currents. Mar. Nat. 2(1): 79-93|
|In: Marine Nature. Marine Science Institute, Yeungnam University: Kyongsan. ISSN 1225-990X, more|
Dense, multi-specific blooms of dinoflagellates persist year-round within Pettaquamscutt Cove, Rhode Island, U.S.A., a shallow embayment with a large tidal prism. Drogue tracking suggests that the retention of dinoflagellate patches (Gyrodinium uncatenum and Gymnodinium simplex) during July is largely related to lateral mixing processes and exchange. Washout-of dinoflagellate patches by tidal flushing is minimized by division of Pettaquamscutt Cove into an inner and outer basin, in which tidal prisms represent 46 and 55% of the high tide volumes, respectively. Surface water movements within the inner basin are largely controlled by winds; whereas in the outer basin both winds and tides contribute to circulation. The outer basin, under certain conditions, buffers tidal flushing losses of dinoflagellates from the more densely populated inner basin. During periods of strong, summer sea breezes from the southwest, irregularities in the shoreline and lee shores shelter bloom patches and further protect against their displacement from the cove. Application of Ketchum's model suggests that the dinoflagellate populations either are growing much more rapidly than expected from culture experiments and/or retention mechanisms are particularly well established in Pettaquamscutt Cove, and compensate for expected population washout rates through tidal flushing. The observations support the notion that the development and persistence of dinoflagellate blooms within small embayments are strongly determined by physical and chemical features specific to each embayment.