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|Azaspiracid shellfish poisoning: A review on the chemistry, ecology, and toxicology with an emphasis on human health impacts|
|Twiner, M.J.; Rehmann, N.; Hess, P.; Doucette, G.J. (2008). Azaspiracid shellfish poisoning: A review on the chemistry, ecology, and toxicology with an emphasis on human health impacts. Mar. Drugs 6(2): 39-72. dx.doi.org/10.3390/md20080004|
|In: Marine Drugs. Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI): Basel. ISSN 1660-3397, more|
azaspiracid (AZA); AZP; shellfish poisoning
Azaspiracids (AZA) are polyether marine toxins that accumulate in various shellfish species and have been associated with severe gastrointestinal human intoxications since 1995. This toxin class has since been reported from several countries, including Morocco and much of western Europe. A regulatory limit of 160 µg AZA/kg whole shellfish flesh was established by the EU in order to protect human health; however, in some cases, AZA concentrations far exceed the action level. Herein we discuss recent advances on the chemistry of various AZA analogs, review the ecology of AZAs, including the putative progenitor algal species, collectively interpret the in vitro and in vivo data on the toxicology of AZAs relating to human health issues, and outline the European legislature associated with AZAs.