|Predation on northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica Sars)|
|Simard, Y.; Harvey, M. (2010). Predation on northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica Sars). Adv. Mar. Biol. 57: 277-306. dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-381308-4.00010-8|
|In: Advances in Marine Biology. Academic Press: New York. ISSN 0065-2881, more|
We consider predation as a function of prey concentration with a focus on how this interaction is influenced by biological–physical interactions, and wider oceanographic processes. In particular, we examine how the anti-predation behaviour of Northern krill interacts with ocean-circulation process to influence its vulnerability to predation. We describe how three-dimensional (3D) circulation interacts with in situ light levels to modulate predator–prey interactions from small to large scales, and illustrate how the stability of the predator–prey system is sometimes perturbed as a consequence. Northern krill predators include a wide range of species from the pelagic and benthic strata, as well as birds. Many exhibit adaptations in their feeding strategy to take advantage of the dynamic physical–biological processes that determine the distribution, concentration and vulnerability of Northern krill. Among them, baleen whales appear to have developed particularly efficient predation strategies. A literature search indicates that Northern krill are a major contributor to ecosystem function throughout its distributional range, and a key species with respect to the flow of energy to upper trophic levels. A list of future research needed to fill gaps in our understanding of Northern krill predator–prey interaction is provided.